First of all, let me give you a definition of the Internet of Things. Wikipedia describes it thus: “The Internet of Things (IoT) is a system of interrelated computing devices, mechanical and digital machines, objects, animals or people that are provided with unique identifiers (UIDs) and the ability to transfer data over a network without requiring human-to-human or human-to-computer interaction.”
The IoT has a lot of applications, including the smart home and care of the elderly, as well as in healthcare, transport, manufacturing and agriculture, as well as on military battlefields. The ‘smart city’ is another IoT driven creation. Drones are an IoT baby, as are some of the latest artificial organs. The possibilities are seemingly endless, but let’s take a look at some of the areas where it has already had an impact.
The Proteus Pill tracks the influence of each pill taken: the time, the content, and a body’s specific reaction. It allows doctors to discover which medications work, or don’t, with individual patients, making for more accurate prescribing.
International courier company DHL uses IoT tools to track and monitor deliveries. It uses sensors to track shipment containers, protect them, and collect data on workers and the adopted tools. In return, the company is more efficient and costs are reduced.
Virgin Atlantic launched and IoT connection with its Boeing 787 plane to predict possible health and equipment problems and improve flight safety. It shouldn’t be too long before other airlines adopt it.
Drones have great potential in agriculture, and they are the most multifunctional and reliable Internet of Things technologies. In particular, they are capable of taking pictures of huge areas of land, and can analyse soil composition and watering problems, as well as detecting plant diseases. Some believe that the use of IoT in agriculture will be one of its most important uses.
Smart learning is on its way thanks to IoT. From adjusting the space within a university campus to creating a personalized study plan, IoT in combination with AI and machine learning changes the level of satisfaction with learning significantly.
LionGuardians is an example of IoT at work in nature. Its technology is an open source wildlife tracking collar system designed specifically for saving animals threatened with extinction. Currently being used in southern Kenya, it is hoping to protect and save 2,000 lions left in the area — by tracking their location and sending notifications to coordinators via SMS in case assistance is needed.
The Smart City is another fascinating use of IoT. Barcelona is already on board with it and has 500 km of optical fibre network, Wi-Fi routed in street lighting, air quality monitoring and water consumption sensors, smart parking and smart waste management. It makes life more comfortable for citizens and more cost effective as well.
The IoT is already changing our world, and it has much further to go.
The telecommunications industry is poised at an interesting point at the moment, particularly regarding the hot debate about the adoption of 5G. There are a significant number of issues with regard to the use of 5G, with many citizens campaigning to stop its use and politicians becoming increasingly wary of it potential to be responsible for national security breaches, and it is hard to ignore the possible downsides.
But there may be another way forward for the telecoms industry that isn’t so controversial, and that is the adoption of blockchain. It seems to me that there are two key areas worth looking at when analysing the potential benefits of blockchain for communications:
1. Its commercialisation potential for maximum profit
2. Its decentralised nature potentially tackles privacy, usability, accessibility and security issues.
First, blockchain, which is also described as distributed ledger technology, is decentralised, which makes it difficult to tamper with or retrospectively change.
The interest in blockchain applications for the telecommunications industry is expected to grow. According to Research and Markets, the market will grow from an estimated $46.6 million in 2018 to $993.8 million by 2023 at a CAGR of 84.4%.
For telecommunications companies, the opportunity to create ledgers of immutable information which can register and record data without the need for a single, central authority can improve and speed up the efficiency of billing and e-transactions, as well as provide a means of reducing the operational cost of the infrastructure.
Plus, blockchain’s architecture, strenghtened by cryptography, elicits trust and can give businesses a boost when it comes to privacy and security. This is an urgent requirement for today’s Communication Service Providers (CSPs) given the sophistication and rate of current hacker attacks.
Those who may benefit most from implementing blockchain in roaming services, identity management, and both e-commerce and mobile payment systems are
telecommunications infrastructure providers, app developers, and middleware vendors.
What follows are some examples of how blockchain might operate in key telecoms areas:
Blockchain-based Identity management
Blockchain and identity management are a perfect partnership. Currently, identity verification is multi-layered, cumbersome and prone to errors. Remember Equifax, where 148 million people’s personally identifiable information (PII) was stolen?
Blockchain can remove the potential for theft by issuing a unique ID number on a smart contract and that is important for CSPs. The prospect of a borderless, secure identification system, which can cross-country borders is an enticing prospect for telecoms early adopters. Moreover, blockchain can provide a means to authenticate users in a simple, secure fashion, and offer carriers the opportunity to overhaul legacy systems to be more cost- effective.
International roaming systems and charges on the blockchain
Roaming charges have always been a challenge for CSPs and the consumer. Blockchain promises to solve it. According to a report prepared in advance of the 2019 Telco Blockchain Forum happening in May in London, Blockchain could simplify the process. Blockchain in Telecom, for example, is developing a blockchain- enabled system for opening the global telecoms market to small mobile operators, which would be able to use the resources of larger companies, and in turn, operators can expand their subscriber bases
The creation of hybrid blockchains can include both public-facing
and back-end elements which are suitable for purposes including subscriber authentication across borders. Vendors can also launch cost- effective smart contracts to offer roaming services to consumers at local rates without the need for lengthy payment clearing or exchanges between local and global operators.
For example, Bubbletone is the developer of a roaming network that permits consumers to keep their existing e-sim while taking advantage of local rates. Carriers and consumers are directly connected through a blockchain-based marketplace, allowing subscribers to become customers of local companies temporarily and allow them to select from plans and pricing available on the platform. Prepaid plans are also offered by way of smart contracts on the platform.
To sum up the advantages of blockchain from a commercial viewpoint, with an eye to maximising profit, Applications of the blockchain and
smart contracts include subscriber authentication, improved account security, roaming contracts, and mobile transactions. Moreover, distributed ledger technology, when implemented correctly, can provide a cost-effective way to reduce operational expenditure for rapid transactions
Blockchain and 5G
First, let me recap on what 5G is, and its potential, as well as its downsides, for those who may not have been following the debate.
5G is the next generation in mobile networks. It’s a significant leap from 4G to what 5G promises. Basically, 5G is being designed to meet the very large growth in data and connectivity of today’s modern society, the internet of things with billions of connected devices, and tomorrow’s innovations. It is currently being developed and trialled ready for commercial launch from 2020 and widespread availability of 5G services is expected by 2025.
In addition to delivering faster connections and greater capacity, a very important advantage of 5G is the fast response time. For example, 3G networks had a typical response time of 100 milliseconds, 4G is around 30 milliseconds and 5G will be as low as 1 millisecond. This is virtually instantaneous opening up a new world of connected applications. To achieve this speed, 5G uses radio waves or radio frequency (RF) energy to transmit and receive voice and data connecting our communities.
5G will enable:
1. The Internet of Things or machine-to-machine communication. This involves connecting billions of devices without human intervention at a scale not seen before.
2. Enhanced mobile broadband, New applications will include fixed wireless internet access for homes, outdoor broadcast applications without the need for broadcast vans, and greater connectivity for people on the move.
3. Faster communication that allows real-time control of devices and industrial robotics, and the possibility of remote medical care and procedures.
As the World Health Organisation and EMF explains “5G will keep us connected in tomorrow’s smart cities, smart homes and smart schools, and enable opportunities that we haven’t even thought of yet.”
Why is there opposition to 5G?
Previously mobile broadband networks have focused on connecting people, but 5G is also focused on connecting machines.
The idea behind 5G is to use untapped bandwidth of the extremely high-frequency millimeter wave (MMW), between 30GHz and 300GHz, in addition to some lower and mid-range frequencies. But buildings, trees and plants absorb these frequencies; so more cell towers will be needed. There could be one every few feet from wherever you are. This article from eluxe magazine outlines the health concerns arising from the proliferation of towers and the exposure to more radio waves.
The political and ethical aspects of 5G
MIT Technology Review suggests 5G is a “Technological paradigm shift, akin to the shift from the typewriter to the computer.” And as The Politicalists have said in a Medium article: “We’re talking permanent connectivity way beyond checking your mobile every few minutes — it’s wearables or implants, smart cities, neural networks.”
There are political ramifications of such a connected world, particularly regarding data storage and privacy. Here’s a possible scenario in a 5G world: “Imagine, you’re walking down the street in your town.
The pavement itself is tracking the speed at which you’re walking, your heart-rate, the shoes you’re wearing, the route you’re taking. All as a means to hoover up data to then pass on to whichever service suppliers or governmental organisations are willing to purchase it.”
As The Politicalists suggest, Nike will be tracking how many people are walking in their shoes, Google Maps will track the speed you walk at and provide you with a personalised route from A to B,, and Tinder will check your heart rate to see if you pass anyone you find attractive and then it will send you their profile. Yes, it sounds freaky.
So from a political perspective, there will be much legislation required, much debate and discourse around how we want our data used, where and when.
Why are governments banning Huawei in their 5G ?
It is all to do with national security.
At the moment a lot of the discussions about 5G have been overshadowed by the media storm around Huawei, the Chinese telecoms giant. President Trump has just declared a national emergency over Huawei and no US firms are allowed to use components made by the company. In the UK, a former head of MI6 has stated that Huawei poses a threat to the nation’s national security, because its operations are “subject to influence by the Chinese state,” although the current government led by Theresa May has agreed that Huawei can supply non-core components for the UK’s 5G system.
Huawei says it has never engaged in espionage or allowed its technology to be knowingly hacked by the Chinese state, but the number of countries that don’t believe this is growing. In the Netherlands, there is concern that Dutch operators who use Huawei hardware and software in their mobile networks are giving China a “back door” to customer data and described it as being “like a smoking gun with possible geopolitical consequences”. Australia, New Zealand and Japan have already banned Huawei from their 5G networks.
Well, use somebody else you’re probably thinking. Unfortunately, as British Telecom’s Chief Architect pointd out recently, “there is only one true 5G supplier right now and that is Huawei — the others need to catch up.”
However, one thing is certain; despite the debate over Huawei, 5G is coming. The question then is, can blockchain work with 5G to deliver a more cost efficient service.
The benefits of blockchain deployment with 5G
Tim Sloane, VP, Payments Innovation at Mercator Advisory Group has written an interesting article about the economic benefits of blockchain and 5G working together in telecoms. He discusses the argument that 5G will drive IoT deployment and that IoT devices will utilise Blockchain as a layer of security. However, as he points out, W3C is already securing DNS and HTTP in order to deliver greater security using the public/private key pairs that blockchain also uses. He suggests that blockchain may be better used for data distribution, providing it operates at faster speeds.
He refers to an article from IBINEX News: “The major bottleneck while connecting the devices through 5G is related to their safety concerns, and that’s exactly where blockchain can be of immense help. Thanks to the high-security system of blockchain which provides immutable, tamper-resistance records, the issue of forging and hacking can be easily handled.”
But he concedes that blockchain does have a role to play in security: “Each device will be having its own blockchain address and can be registered according to that particular address, thereby protecting its identity from the other devices.”
The blockchain may also assist operators with the upcoming
rollout of 5G. According to Huawei, blockchain projects currently underway often align well with 5G architectures, including distributed system use and low-latency computational node usage. Blockchain could even improve existing architectures by simplifying underlying processes and allow
for better resource allocation through decentralized management systems.
The economic benefits of blockchain in telecoms
The Blockchain Council makes a strong case for using blockchain in telecoms, as might be expected. As it says, “One of the most important things for telecom companies is to innovate in a highly competitive market while at the same time reducing costs.” It sees Smart Contracts as the key to cost cutting, because telcos “provide a lot of automation in their internal operations like billing, roaming, and supply chain management. By using smart contracts to handle all of the billing related to roaming, telcos can save a lot of money because of prevention against fraudulent traffic.”
Furthermore, blockchain can enable telecoms companies to deliver a host of new revenue streams. These include:
· Digital asset transaction — micropayments for music, mobile gaming etc
· Digital ID verification — telcos can offer an ID verification service
· Ecosystems for collaboration — Telcos have a unique opportunity to offer a new era of digital service in advertising and IoT.
And as the Blockchain Council suggests, IoT devices are set to become a $100 billion industry by 2020 and would require millions of machine-to-machine (M2M) payments to work. This is where telecoms companies using blockchain could clean up, while also ensuring security, accessibility, lower costs and the evolution of new revenue streams.
Is it possible to run an entire city using blockchain technology?
Dubai seems to think so. The business and airline hub of the Middle East has set itself the challenging task of being the “first blockchain-powered government in the world by 2020.”
It might sound outrageous right now, but the concept of ‘smart cities’ running on the blockchain is actually not as outlandish, nor as difficult to achieve as you may think. The question really is; where do we start? There are so many millions of possible uses for blockchain in a city, but there are undoubtedly some bigger areas where it will have the most dramatic effect.
Already a number of cities are using IoT devices to do a number of jobs, like monitoring traffic and air quality. Thos IoT devices can be connected to the blockchain. That also applies to any city system that collects data — it can all go on the blockchain. In fact, by putting it all on the blockchain, it will provide an upgrade to the system, and make the information easier to manage and access. Basically it will get rid of all kinds of inefficiencies where officials, such as the police, have to go through X number of other organisations to get a vital piece of information.
Better public safety
Data sharing can have a positive impact on public safety. The blockchain can provide a secure system for sharing sensitive data. One example is working on preventative measures, such as analyzing crime statistics and planning police patrols around that information. Yes, there are issues to be ironed out regarding citizen’s rights to privacy and how much information a government can track, but people are at least having a conversation about it.
Public transport is vital in most major cities and they don’t work without it. The blockchain offers a lot of potential here, especially for the way passengers pay for their transport. If commuters have a blockchain wallet on their smartphone, they could pay for any transport pass, loyalty programme, or purchase tickets without a card.
If you put the public transport payment system on the blockchain, you can also offer customers some incentives. For example, if a city wants its residents to use transport rather than drive, there is a way to incentivise that. When the smartphone wallet shows a citizen has been using public transport for a specific period of time, it is possible to offer them a ‘free ride’ or a discount on an electricity bill. In a smart city, an incentive should push people toward more ethical and sustainable living choices.
And that is what a smart city should be — sustainable and more habitable with fewer issues and inefficiencies. If Dubai achieves its goal, it will have created a blueprint for others to follow.